1. Vera L. Zolberg, "Conflicting visions in American art museums", Theory and Society 1
0 (1981), 103-125. Reprinted in The Sociology of Art: A Reader,
Jeremy Tanner ed. (Routledge, 2003), 194-205. See also David Elliott, "A Fine Mess!", Art Asia Pacific,
Issue 74 Jul/Aug 2011, online http://www.artasiapacific.com/Magazine/...
2. See e.g. John Reeve & Vicky Woollard: "Introduction", in Caroline Lang, John Reeve, Vicky Woollard eds. The responsive Museum: Working with audiences in the twenty-first Century
. (Hampshire: Ashgate, 2006).
3. Alex Farquharson, "I curate, you curate, we curate…", Art Monthly
September & October 2003. Paul O'Neill, "The Curatorial Turn: From Practice to Discourse", in Judith Rugg (ed.), Issues in Curating Contemporary Art and Performance
(Chicago: Intellect, 2007), 13-28.
4. Stephen M. Dobbs and Elliot W. Eisner, "The Uncertain Profession: Educators in American Art Museums", Journal of Aesthetic Education
Vol. 21, No. 4, Winter, 1987, 77-86. Terry Smith, Thinking Contemporary Curating,
(Independent Curators International 2012), 45.
5. Julia Bryan-Wilson quoted in O'Neill, "The Curatorial Turn", 20.
6. See for example "Look & Learn", Frieze
, Issue 141 September 2011.
7. See Helen Charman for an account of the professionalisation of education from a British perspective: Helen Charman "Uncovering Professionalism in the Art Museum", Tate Papers,
2005, online http://www.tate.org.uk/research/...
accessed 5 Jan 2013. In 2006, Vicky Woollard still calls education an "unsettled profession", Caroline Lang & al., The responsive Museum,
8. See also Sally Tallant, "Experiments in Integrated Programming", Tate Papers,
Issue 11, 2009. Online http://www.tate.org.uk/research/...
9. See O'Neill "The Curatorial Turn" for a review of the history of "curator as artist" discussions. At the same time, artistic processes have begun to resemble curatorial processes. See also Helmut Draxler, "Crisis as Form. Curating and the Logic of Mediation", Oncurating.org
Issue # 13/12, Institution as Medium. Curating as Institutional Critique? / Part II; and Boris Groys "Multiple Authorship" in Barbara Vanderlinden and Elena Filipovic (eds.), The Manifesta Decade: Debates on Contemporary Exhibitions and Biennials
, (Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 2006), 93–99.
10. See for example Tom Morton's rant about art trollies "Are you being served", Frieze
101, September 2006. For Max Ryynänen, education seriously overshadows art. "Institutional Stress. When Bureaucracy Replaces Art…" Artpulse
, undated, online http://artpulsemagazine.com/...
11. Paul O'Neill & Mick Wilson eds Curating and the educational turn,
(2010), 12, 93, 126, 190, 218.
12. Ryynänen, "Institutional Stress".
13. Janna Graham, "Spanners in the Spectacle: Radical Research at the Front Lines", Fuse Magazine
April 2010, online http://www.readperiodicals.com/201004/...
accessed 19.10.2011; Carmen Mörsch, "Alliances for Unlearning: On Gallery Education and Institutions of Critique", Afterall
, Spring 2011 (London: Central St Martins) 4-13; Nora Sternfeld, "Unglamorous Tasks: What Can Education Learn from its Political Traditions?", e-flux
03/2010, online http://www.e-flux.com/journal/...
. In 1986, Dobbs and Eisner observed the uncontested hierarchy: rather than seen complementary, the curatorial function was considered primary and educational function secondary. Even worse: the educator was seen as a technician taking the lead from the curator who "really knows", i.e. possesses the right knowledge. Dobbs and Eisner, "The Uncertain Profession."
14. Engage the National Association for Gallery Education, "Work in Progress artists, education and participation" conference in Margate, 14-16 November 2011. Wilson's talk online: http://www.engage.org/conference/...
15. Sternfeld, "Unglamorous Tasks".
16. See also Graham, "Spanners in the spectacle". http://www.tate.org.uk/research/...
17. Carmen Mörsch, "Contradicting oneself: Gallery education as critical practice within the educational turn in curating" in It's All Mediating. Outlining and Incorporating the Roles of Curating and Education in the Exhibition Context,
edited by Kaija Kaitavuori, Laura Kokkonen & Nora Sternfeld (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013), 8–19.
18. Farquharson, "I curate, you curate, we curate
19. O'Neill, "The Curatorial Turn", 13-14.
20. See e.g. Ernesto Pujol, "The artist as educator", Art Journal
, Vol. 60, No. 3, (Autumn 2001), 4-6.
21. Maria Lind, "Why mediate art?", in It's All Mediating. Outlining and Incorporating the Roles of Curating and Education in the Exhibition Context
edited by Kaija Kaitavuori, Laura Kokkonen & Nora Sternfeld (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013), 20–26. Originally published in Mousse Magazine #28 in 2011.
22. See e.g. Farquharson, "I curate, you curate, we curate. Also Draxler, "Crisis as form".
23. Hans Ulrich Obrist Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Curating But Were Afraid to Ask
. (Berlin: Sternberg Press 2011).
24. Hans Ulrich Obrist Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Curating But Were Afraid to Ask
. (Berlin: Sternberg Press 2011).
25. Morton, "Are you being served".
26. Carmen Mörsch et al. eds, Documenta 12 education #2: Between critical practice and visitor service
, (2010), 9-31.
27. See e.g. Carla Padró about didactic, discovery, constructivist and social constructionist approaches to gallery education, in Padró, "Learning Theories Employed within Museum & Gallery Education: A Short Overview", in Collect & Share: Good Practice, Training Needs, and Action Points
(2005), 15-17, (available online www.collectandshare.eu.com
): Also published in Lifelong Learning in Museums. A European Handbook
. Edited by Kirsten Gibbs, Margherita Sani, Jane Thompson, (2006), 20-22. These typologies, albeit more detailed, echo also the debate about "democratisation of culture" versus "cultural democracy" in the 1970s.
28. Discussions about whether and to what extent information transfer is oppressive or emancipatory are quite active among education professionals, and a lot of critique circulates e.g. about the "banking concept" of learning (Paulo Freire) or "stultification" (Jacques Rancière).
29. Janna Graham notes that the term education flattens the many notions of pedagogy and in people's minds refers to school education only. In Marijke Steedman ed. Gallery as Community: Art, Education, Politics
. (London: Whitechapel Gallery 2012), 88. Wilson, however, suggests in his talk (see footnote 11) that flagging up critical educational practices is a strategic means of claiming ground in the terrain of the educational turn.
30. Lind, "Why mediate art?", 22–23.
31. See also Kaija Kaitavuori, "Museum education: Between the devil of business model and the deep blue sea of public service". Engage
journal 28/2011. Online http://www.academia.edu/1373643/...
32. Mörsch, "Contradicting oneself", 12.
33. The term is adapted from Mary Lousie Pratt and refers to space of colonial encounters. James Clifford, Museums as Contact Zones
, 1997, republished in many anthologies.
34. Adela Železnik, Reflections on Gallery Education in the Time of the Crisis, in It's All Mediating. Outlining and Incorporating the Roles of Curating and Education in the Exhibition Context,
edited by Kaija Kaitavuori, Laura Kokkonen & Nora Sternfeld (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013), 45–55.
35. Felicity Allen, "What does globalisation mean for education in the art museum?" in It's All Mediating. Outlining and Incorporating the Roles of Curating and Education in the Exhibition Context
edited by Kaija Kaitavuori, Laura Kokkonen & Nora Sternfeld (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013), 56–72; Kaija Kaitavuori, "Understanding the unfamiliar", Kiasma Magazine
#13 Vol 4, 2001, 10–13.
36. This was pointed out by Nora Sternfeld. See also Lind, "Why mediate art?", 20.
37. For Draxler, mediation means mainly curating. Interestingly, the translator (from German) has added a note in which 'mediation' is distanced from the meaning of conflict and defined as communication and understanding – in my mind somewhat contradicting Draxler's idea. Draxler, "Crisis as Form".
38. Nora Sternfeld & Luisa Ziaja, "What comes after the show? On post-representational curating", in Dilemmas of Curatorial Practices, World of Art Anthology
, edited by Barbara Borcic & Saša Nabergoj, Ljubljana, 2012, pp. 62-64.